Sunday, October 21, 2018

computer programming language

The programming languages can be divided into low level languages and high level languages .

Low level language : low level are machine oriented in which each instruction corresponds to or resembles a machine instruction . the low level languages were developed on order to overcome the difficulties associated with writing program in machine language . the mnemonic codes are used in place of machine codes . low level language divided in to two categories
Machine language and assembly language .

Machine language : a computer programming language consisting of binary or hexadecimal instructions which a computer can respond to directly. it is the only language understoid by computer. this language consists of 0s and 1s . machine language also known as first generation language .

Assembly language : it uses mnemonic codes to represent machine language instruction . it is also known as second generation language , embedded systems depends on assembly language .

High level language : high level language are mainly machine independent but they are generally problem oriented languages , the programs written in high level languages are translated into machine language with a translator called compiler .

Some common high languages are :

1. FORTRAN : FORTRAN developed by John Backus . This is commonly used for numeric computation and scientific computing .

2. COBOL : COBOL stands for common business oriented language . this language is commonly used for large data handling purposes in commercial and business application .

3. PASCAL : Pascal developed by Nicklaus wirth . this is commonly used as general purpose language and small computer .

4. C++ : this language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in early 1980s . it is the superset of c that support object oriented programming .

5. C : c language developed by Dennis Ritchie . c language features of high level and low level language .

6. PROLOG : programming by logic .

7. JAVA : Java developed by sun Microsystems . java basically used for high level programming like game development ,software development , application software , robotics , embedded systems etc .

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